Interaction between Domestic Investment and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Pakistan

This paper has investigated interaction between domestic investment and foreign direct investment (FDI) for period 1976 to 2010 for Pakistan. Theoretical literature pointed positive relation between FDI and domestic investment and most of empirical studies also support positive correlation expect few cases. FDI improves domestic investment through technological diffusion, gain economies of scale and provide access to international market. The study is also trying to evaluate the interdependence of FDI and domestic investment. This study adopted  unit root analysis, cointegration and causality techniques for the empirical investigation; the outcomes of this study suggest that FDI has positive impact on investment and similarly domestic investment has positive association with FDI which implies that FDI and domestic investment reinforce each other and thus we reject the crowding out Hypothesis in case of Pakistan. There is need of popper policy implementation and government should give incentives to augment FDI inflow, including subsidies and tax exemption to the foreign firms.

 

 

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Performance of Bank of Baroda (BOB) after Acquisition of Benaras State Bank Ltd. (BSB): A Case Study

Dis-intermediation and competition have forced banks to look for new ways to boost their returns. One of the routes adopted by the banks is that of consolidation. Mergers and acquisitions have been used to expand revenues and cut costs. Consolidation of banks through Mergers and Acquisitions is not a new phenomenon for the Indian banking system. It has been going on from the early days of modern banking when three Presidency banks merged in to form of the Imperial Bank of India in 1921. The study has been undertaken to make a comparison of the performance of the Banaras State Bank (BSB) and Bank of Baroda (BOB) prior and after the merger on the basis of various financial ratios. All efforts are towards judging whether the merger of banks has been fruitful or not and benefit of synergies has been obtained or not. For the purpose of analysis ratio of four years prior to a merger and four years after merger have been compared. The analysis of financial ratios shows that efficiency has increased after the merger of BOB and BSB. Improvement has been observed after merger in total income to total capital ratio, interest income to interest expenditure ratio, net profit to total capital ratio, advances to deposits ratio and advances to total assets ratio. Poor performance has been observed in the case of deposits to total assets ratio, deposits to investment ratio, fixed asset to total assets, total income to total assets ratio and net profit to total assets ratio.

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Credit Scoring via Kernel Matching Pursuit and its Ensemble

Credit risk is paid more and more attention by financial institutions,and credit scoring has become an active research topic in computational finance. This paper proposes to applykernel matching pursuit (KMP) and its ensembleto credit scoring. KMP originates from matching pursuit algorithms that append sequentially basic functions from a basis function dictionary to an initial empty basis using a greedy optimization algorithm, to approximate a given function, and obtain the final solution with a linear combination of chosen functions. KMP is the specialmatching pursuit algorithm using a kernel-based dictionary. An outstanding advantage of KMP in solving classification problems is the sparsity of its solution. Furthermore, we also apply KMP ensemble to credit scoring to model the large-scale data set, which is infeasible for the single KMP. Experimental results based on two data sets from UCI repository and one large data set from individual housing loans in a commercial bank of China show the effectiveness and sparsity of KMP and KMP ensemble in building credit scoring model, compared with the classical classification method ? support vector machine.

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Approaches to Understanding Mechanisms between Environmental Chemical Exposure and Brain Development

Environmental chemicals are not without effects on the developmental processes taking place in the brain, considering their involvement in its pathogenesis. Of importance is the finding in a 2006 survey which showed several environmental chemicals to be implicated in neurobehavioral deficits in children following prenatal exposures. Worrisome on the other hand, quantifying chemical exposure effects on neurodevelopment and brain disorders usually prove difficult being that the brain; the target organ of neurotoxicants, requires highly invasive or extremely costly (e.g. neuroimaging) methods to access. To date paucity of central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral biomarkers are available as validated indicators for the mechanisms responsible for brain disorders. Available biomarkers so far for many environmental chemicals are indeed poor predicators. Combining insights from epidemiological studies and anecdotal clinical evidences in the field of neuroscience, this review discusses existing literatures/experimental researches that have attempted to explain links between environmental chemicals and brain disorders. This paper aims at contributing to the field of neuroscience by clarifying key processes, noting unresolved issues in previous experimental works and illuminating on mechanistic approaches to be tested with proper and robust research design of the 21st century.
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A short review on computer vision for fruit classification

This paper offers a short survey on computer vision for fruit classification. CV is a set of methods for acquiring, processing, analyzing, and understanding images, with the aim of offering informative results. CV is now obtaining attention and applied to classification of various fruits. In this paper, we first reviewed the components of a CV system, and offered three variants: RGB system, hyperspectral system, and multispectral system. Then, we reviewed the recent computer vision and image processing technique on fruit classification.  It is hoped that this survey would be beneficial for the researchers studying on computer vision for fruit classification.
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Robust Textual Steganography

Information hiding has been extensively functional on diverse fields during the enormous use of internet, with the support of two major branches, digital watermarking and Steganography. The security issues and confidentiality of the sensitive information has become the prime and necessary concern, as various events of global terrorism energized the requirement for better techniques for securing the machines and the data they store, transform and transmit. The proposed technique is based on text Steganography by using their technical properties, since storing of text file require less memory and its work faster, and makes communication preferable to other mediums of Steganography like image, audio and video for data hiding. The aim of this paper is to develop a model which can improves capacity, imperceptibility and robustness by use of multi layer text into text stenography with the combination of encryption, compression and embedding approach for obscurity of data.

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Diffusion Equation for Fluid Flow in Porous Rocks

The multiphase flow in porous media is a subject of great complexities with a long rich history in the field of fluid mechanics. This is a subject with important technical applications, most notably in oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs and so on. The single-phase fluid flow through a porous medium is well characterized by Darcy’s law. In the petroleum industry and in other technical applications, transport is modeled by postulating a multiphase generalization of the Darcy’s law. In this connection, distinct pressures are defined for each constituent phase with the difference known as capillary pressure, determined by the interfacial tension, micro pore geometry and surface chemistry of the solid medium. For flow rates, relative permeability is defined that relates the volume flow rate of each fluid to its pressure gradient. In the present paper, there is a derivation and analysis about the diffusion equation for the fluid flow in porous rocks and some important results have been founded. The permeability is a function of rock type that varies with stress, temperature etc., and does not depend on the fluid. The effect of the fluid on the flow rate is accounted for by the term of viscosity. The numerical value of permeability for a given rock depends on the size of the pores in the rock as well as on the degree of interconnectivity of the void space. The pressure pulses obey the diffusion equation not the wave equation. Then they travel at a speed which continually decreases with time rather than travelling at a constant speed. The results shown in this paper are much useful in earth sciences and petroleum industry. 

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Study of Efflorescence on Different Types of Bangladeshi Bricks and Relation between Degrees of Efflorescence with the Type of Bricks

The work presents a practical investigation on the degree of efflorescence on different types of bricks available in Bangladesh. A relationship between the type of brick and degree of efflorescence is observed. The study is performed on five different types of samples. For this purpose the general procedure for a brick production is followed by making two samples of customized brick from two different types of soil which includes black soil and red soil, besides the collection of readymade first-class, second-class and third-class bricks. The first-class brick is provided by the “Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET”, where as the rest two samples are collected from two different brickfields in Gazipur. The black soil and red soil is collected from brickfields in Savar and Gazipur. The test of efflorescence was conducted on total eight samples according to Civil Engineering Standard. The degree of efflorescence is found lowest for first class brick, higher for second class and highest for third class. The customized two brick samples attained first class and second class property and showed efflorescence accordingly .The whole experimentation is conducted at “Corrosion Lab” in “Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET”.
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