Fault Tolerant and Energy Efficient Clustering and Coverage Methods for WSN
The management of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) depends on the algorithms used to group network nodes into clusters and once the clusters have been determined the protocols used within them to decide how the nodes provide coverage of their area. Effective and efficient algorithms to manage clustering and coverage need to address several very important factors that significantly effect performance, these factors include: network lifetime, scalability and load balancing between the nodes. Different algorithms are designed with different factors in mind. For example one algorithm may be designed to prolong the network lifetime and another for ease of scalability. Furthermore the implementation of a particular algorithm can also affect its performance. For example the choice of nodes to be the cluster heads may improve the effectiveness of a clustering algorithm. In this paper we propose a Fault Tolerant, Energy Efficient, Distributed Clustering algorithm for wireless sensor network (FEED) which achieves at a significant functionality in comparison with recent methods. This can be understood according to the results of simulations. Also, based on the FEED a coverage algorithm is used by the nodes to provide coverage of their area. The proposed FEED based coverage algorithm leads meaningful energy saving for network nodes. The simulations show a significant increase in network lifetime when compared with other clustering methods such as LEACH and HEED. The presented algorithm improve the fault tolerance profile of WSN networks and prolong their lifetime by attending to the energy level of nodes, the distance between the nodes, density and centrality factors. Receiving almost all the region information while considering energy, lifetime and fault tolerance problems existing in the most of wireless sensor networks is satisfied by FEED and its coverage method.
wireless sensor network, cluster head, pivot cluster head, supervisor node, lifetime
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