Pharmaceuticals in the environment: A brief review

Dr. Prabal Giri, Dr. Churala Pal

Abstract


Pharmaceuticals are the complex molecules with different functionalities, diverse physicochemical properties. They are developed and used because of their specific biological activities. Biodegradation modifies the chemical structure of their active molecules resulting in a change in their physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties. Pharmaceuticals are generally focused considering them as therapeutics. Nevertheless, they indicate the negative impact that these chemical contaminants may have on living organisms, ecosystems and ultimately, public health. This study describes the different contamination sources as well as fate and both acute and chronic effects on non-target organisms. An overview of the sources of environmental contamination, environmental fate and ecotoxicology is outlined in this review.


Keywords


Pharmaceuticals, surface waters, sewage treatment, photosensitizers, therapeutic.

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